How information presented or taught in the culture can affect people’s abilities of encoding and recalling the information.
For example, the “War of the Ghosts” story, which is frequently used in
memory test, was read aloud in English to college students at New York and Ghana, West Africa. Students in both colleges did not take notes and they were not informed about there would be a memory test.
After sixteen days, they were asked to write in English as much the themes and ideas which they could remember about the story. Ghanaian students remarkably outperformed in the memory test even English is not their first language. Due to the long Oral Tradition, Ghanaian students can encode information through hearing better than reading.
剛才說過，那些是陌生人的照片，即是實驗參加者與相中人是完全不認識的。何以單憑對方的外表便能評價其性格呢？這是因為我們看到美麗面孔時，便出現「光環效應」（halo effect），自然替對方塑造美好的性格，但看到醜陋面孔時，便出現「尖角效應」（horns effect），聯想到負面的性格來。
Anna Freud was the first one to propose the theory of identification with aggressor. Contemporary psychology refers her theory as Stockholm syndrome after a woman developed affection towards the bank robbers in Stockholm while she was taken as a hostage.
It’s always hard to pursue psychology study, especially in Hong Kong. To satisfying my curiosity about human minds and behaviours, I am glad to have the opportunity to study psychology. With my best endeavours, I received a scholarship as the encouragement during my undergraduate study and, in the end, I graduated with a good honours degree.
To further my professional career in educational domain, I started a new page of my life to study a PhD programme in psychology. I expect to finish the programme in 2019 and, within these years, publish a number of research papers.
I have already started my work to submit a conference paper, but conquering the PhD battle relies on persistence rather than a minute of adrenalin rush. One of the best ways to keep long-lasting spirit is to live a work-life balance life. So, it’s time to stop here and enjoy a cup of coffee.
See you in the next article.