How information presented or taught in the culture can affect people’s abilities of encoding and recalling the information.
For example, the “War of the Ghosts” story, which is frequently used in
memory test, was read aloud in English to college students at New York and Ghana, West Africa. Students in both colleges did not take notes and they were not informed about there would be a memory test.
After sixteen days, they were asked to write in English as much the themes and ideas which they could remember about the story. Ghanaian students remarkably outperformed in the memory test even English is not their first language. Due to the long Oral Tradition, Ghanaian students can encode information through hearing better than reading.